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Sentencing and Corrections in the 21St Century : Setting the Stage for the Future

By Mackenzie, Doris Layton

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Book Id: WPLBN0000661249
Format Type: PDF eBook
File Size:
Reproduction Date: 2005

Title: Sentencing and Corrections in the 21St Century : Setting the Stage for the Future  
Author: Mackenzie, Doris Layton
Volume:
Language: English
Subject: Law., Law & economy, Litigation and arbitration
Collections: Law Library Collection
Historic
Publication Date:
Publisher: Department of Justice

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Mackenzie, D. L. (n.d.). Sentencing and Corrections in the 21St Century : Setting the Stage for the Future. Retrieved from http://www.worldebooklibrary.com/


Description
Legal Reference Publication

Excerpt
Excerpt: The past 30 years have seen enormous changes in the philosophy and practice of sentencing and corrections. The strong emphasis on rehabilitation that existed for the first seven decades of the 20th century gave way in the 1970s to a focus on faimess and justice, by which sentences reflected ?just deserts? rather than a utilitarian motive. Sentencing practices later moved toward a crime-control model that emphasized incarceration as a way to reduce crime in the community; this crime-control model became increasingly popular during the 1980s and 1990s. Discussion of sentencing and corrections in the 21 st century must begin with a review of these changes and their impact on the criminal justice system. The historical changes in sentencing and corrections policies and practices can be characterized, in part, by the emphasis on different goals. Four major goals are usually attributed to the sentencing process: retribution, rehabilitation, deterrence, and incapacitation. Retribution refers to just deserts: people who break the law deserve to be punished. The other three goals are utilitarian, emphasizing methods to protect the public. They differ, however, in the mechanism expected to provide public safety. Deterrence emphasizes the onerousness of punishment; offenders are deterred from committing crimes because of a rational calculation that the cost of punishment is too great. The punishment is so repugnant that neither the punished offender (specific deterrence) nor others (general deterrence) commit crimes in the future. lncapacitation deprives people of the capacity to commit crimes because they are physically detained in prison. Rehabilitation attempts to modify offenders behavior and thinking so they do not continue to commit crimes. Although sentences fiequently address several of these goals in practice, the emphasis on which goal is the highest priority has changed dramatically in the past 30 years.

Table of Contents
Contents Growth of Correctional Populations ............................................... 1 Differences among States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Race. ethnicity. andgender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Correctional expenditures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 From Indeterminacy to Crime Control ............................................. 6 The age of indeterminate sentencing and rehabilitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Crime control: Incapacitation and deterrence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Atimeofchange:197&2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 The justice model of sentencing and corrections Changes in Crime Rates ....................................................... 13 Factors Accounting for the Growth in the Incarceration Rate ......................... 14 Community supervision and revocations .......................................... 16 ImpactoftheChanges ........................................................ 17 Structured sentencing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Mandatory sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Three-strikes laws .......................................................... 19 Parolerelease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 prisoncrowding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Behavioral, cultural, and social changes impinging on corrections ....................... -21 Decisionmaking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Examining the Effectiveness of Different Strategies ................................ 21 Incapacitation and deterrence .................................................. 21 Controversy over costs ...................................................... 23 Intermediatesanctions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Rehabilitation: What works in corrections? ........................................ 25 Intended and Unintended Consequences .......................................... 29

 

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